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2018年12月31日

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 Realize Holland and Cultural Icons of Holland 认识荷兰及其文化符

     1 认识荷兰
     Holland is a name in common usage given to a region in the western part of the Netherlands. The term Holland is also frequently used to refer to the whole of the Netherlands. This usage is generally accepted but nevertheless unofficial and disliked by many Dutch people in the other parts of the Netherlands.
     From the 10th century to the 16th century, Holland proper was a unified political region, a county ruled by the Count of Holland. By the 17th century, Holland had risen to become a maritime and economic power, dominating the other provinces of the Dutch Republic.
     Today, the former County of Holland consists of the two Dutch provinces of North Holland and South Holland, which together include the Netherlands' three largest cities:country capital Amsterdam; seat of government, The Hague; and Rotterdam, home of Europe's largest port.
     The predominance of Holland in the Netherlands has resulted in regionalism on the part of the other provinces. This is a reaction to the perceived threat that Holland poses to the identities and local cultures of the other provinces.
     Holland tends to be associated with a particular image. The stereotypical image of Holland is an artificial amalgam of tulips, windmills, clogs, cheese and traditional dress (klederdracht). As is the case with many stereotypes, this is far from the truth and reality of life in Holland. This can at least in part be explained by the active exploitation of these stereotypes in promotions of Holland and the Netherlands. In fact only in a few of the more traditional villages, such as Volendam and locations in the Zaan area, are the different costumes with wooden shoes still worn by some inhabitants.
     2 荷兰文化符号的表达方式
     Tulips郁金香-National Flower国花
     Windmills    风车
     Wooden Shoes   木鞋
     Wooden shoes are a holdover from Holland's agricultural roots. In the days before plastic and rubber became mainstream, wood was a cheap, readily available material for making strong, waterproof shoes that were perfect for working long days in the fields.
     Cheese 奶酪
     The Dutch are known for being fond of their cheese. After all, every postcard from the Netherlands that doesn't feature tulips seems to be of a piece of cheese. In fact, the Dutch are such famous cheese-eaters that they are known abroad as "cheese-heads".
     National Anthem 国歌
     The Dutch national anthem is supposedly the world's oldest, but it's also one of the strangest. It's basically just a short autobiographical summary of Prince William of Orange, as sung by himself.
     Bicycle 自行车
     In the everyday life of Holland the bike is a familiar sight. Sixteen million people own approximately thirteen million bicycles! Nearly everyone has one, and some people even have two.
     风车、木鞋、奶酪、郁金香号称荷兰四宝,而木鞋又位于四宝之首,其地位可见一斑。人们常把荷兰称为"风车之国"。郁金香是荷兰的国花,荷兰人也非常爱郁金香,在他们的生活中郁金香已经是必不可少的东西,每逢集市、花展,它似乎总是可以充当主角。假如有人问起荷兰有什么好吃的,十有八九人们都会认为是奶酪。荷兰有各种各样的奶酪,多得可以让你无法想象。





     Tulips are Holland's national flower, and when in season you can view vast fields of them in certain parts of the country.
     郁金香是荷兰的国花,每到花季,在荷兰的某些地方,你总可以看到大片大片盛开的郁金香。
     You see, the flowers are not native to Holland, and the only reason they even have them in the first place is because Dutch marauders stole them from Turkey in the 17th century.
     要知道,荷兰并非郁金香的原产地,郁金香最初之所以能够传到荷兰,是因为17世纪荷兰的掠夺者将它们从土耳其偷窃了过来。
     The Turks resent this, and in recent years have tried to reclaim the tulip as their own national symbol.
     土耳其人对此耿耿于怀,最近几年一直试图将郁金香夺回来,将其变成自己国家的象征。
     The farmers grow these beautiful crops of flowers and then, in the harvest time, usually in the late spring, they chop off the tops of the flowers and sell them to gardeners around the world.
     花农种植这些漂亮的花卉,到了丰收时节,通常在晚春,他们就会剪下这些鲜花的上端,把它们卖给世界各地的园丁。
     The farmers here were wearing the most famous part of Dutch costume-wooden shoes!
     这里的花农穿着荷兰民族服饰中名气最大的木鞋!
     Some people still wear wooden shoes today-usually just farmers and other people who spend a lot of time wading through dirt.
     现在有些荷兰人仍然喜欢穿木鞋--通常是农民和其他一些需要长期在泥土里劳作的人们。
     The clogs that you can buy in most stores are intended more for decorative purposes. Real clogs intended for wearing are usually far less attractive.
     在大多数商店里所买到的那些木鞋都是用来作装饰的,一般来说,真正用来穿的木鞋可远远没有那么漂亮。
     Anyone who loves spring flowers, especially tulips, should visit the Keukenhof Gardens near Amsterdam, the capital city of Holland.
     任何喜爱春天的鲜花--尤其是郁金香的人,都应该到离荷兰首都阿姆斯特丹不远的库肯霍夫公园游览。
     Keukenhof Gardens are reputed to be the world's largest flower gardens.
     库肯霍夫公园被誉为世界上最大的花园。
     It has over 7 million spring flowers planted; many types of brilliant bulbs are in bloom for the entire season!
     这里种植着超过七百万种在春天盛开的鲜花,当中许多灿烂的鳞茎类花卉在整个春季都开花!
     The best time to see the tulips is around mid-April, but it varies somewhat with the weather.
     观赏郁金香的最好时机大约是四月中旬,但也会因天气而稍有变化。
     A short distance outside of Amsterdam is the Flower Auction Aalsmeer, which is the world's largest flower auction.
     在阿姆斯特丹市郊不远的地方便是世界上最大的花卉拍卖点--阿斯米尔鲜花拍卖市场。
     Aalsmeer is the "flower" capital of the country.
     阿斯米尔是荷兰的"花都"。
     In addition, the spectacular flower parades can be seen throughout Holland from April through September.
     从四月到九月你都可以在荷兰各地看到精彩绝伦的鲜花巡游。
     The first and biggest parade is a huge attraction drawing tourists from home and abroad, is held at the end of April every year.
     最早而且规模最大的花卉巡游在每年四月底举行,它吸引着国内外大批游客前来观赏。
     The floats in the parade are all made of flower petals. That is really an amazing sight!
     巡游中的彩车都是用花瓣做成的,这真是让人叹为观止的景象啊!
     Another former staple of Dutch agricultural life, mills were originally used for all sorts of practical purposes such as grinding flour, sawing wood, or pumping water.
     荷兰农业社会遗留下来的另一特色物品是风车。风车最早是用于各种实用目的,如磨制面粉、锯木材或者抽水。
     Today they've mostly been rendered obsolete by modern machinery, but some can still be seen operating in the Dutch countryside.
     如今,大多数风车因现代化机械的使用都已被淘汰,但在荷兰乡村仍然可以看到一些风车在运转。
     Because they're such treasured national symbols, there is a windmill conservation movement in Holland that seeks to preserve the remaining survivors.
     由于风车已成为宝贵的民族象征,荷兰就发起了风车保护运动,旨在保护这些现存的风车。
     Though windmills may be disappearing, wind turbines are plentiful.
     尽管风车可能会逐渐消失,但风力涡轮机还大量存在。
     Because Holland is so flat and windy, wind power remains a popular source of energy.
     由于荷兰地势平坦,风力充足,风能依然是一种常见的能源。
     When you're driving across long stretches of flat farmland, collections of tall, white wind turbines are a common sight.
     当你驱车穿过狭长、平坦的乡间农田时,高大的白色风轮机组是一道随处可见的亮丽风景。
     Windmills have always played a great part in the life of Holland and its inhabitants.
     风车在荷兰人的生活中扮演着重要的角色。
     It is only in Holland that so many windmills are present in so small an area.
     只有在荷兰,才可以见到数量众多的风车集中在一片狭小疆域的景象。
     These windmills moreover are in very reasonable, many of them even in excellent, condition and a considerable number of them are working regularly.
     这些风车仍然运转正常,有些甚至状态非常出色。大量风车都定期运转。
     There are windmills of the most varied types:drainage mills, corn mills, and industrial mills for all sorts of purposes.
     风车种类各不相同,主要有排水风车、玉米风车和用于各种用途的工业风车。





     Emily:If I want to travel abroad, where should I go?
     艾米丽:境外旅游哪里比较好呢?
     Jack:What about Holland?
     杰克:去荷兰吧。
     Emily:Holland is a nice choice.
     艾米丽:荷兰是个不错的选择呢。
     Jack:Yes. It is dubbed as the Nation of Windmill, Nation of Flower and Nation of farmland.
     杰克:荷兰有"风车之国"、"水之国"、"花之国"、"牧场之国"的美誉。
     Emily:And it is through Holland that tulips become well known in the whole world.
     艾米丽:而且郁金香就是通过荷兰而闻名于世的。
     Jack:Yes. The tulip is the National flower of Holland.
     杰克:是啊,郁金香可是荷兰的国花。
     Emily:Windmills in Holland are also famous.
     艾米丽:荷兰的风车也很有名。
     Jack:It is only in Holland that so many windmills are present in so small an area.
     杰克:只有在荷兰,才可以见到数量众多的风车集中在一片狭小疆域的景象。
     Emily:Holland is such a romantic place.
     艾米丽:荷兰真是一个浪漫的地方。
     Jack:You can also the spectacular flower parades in Holland.
     杰克:你还能在荷兰看到花车巡游呢。
     Emily:That must be an amazing sight.
     艾米丽:这真是让人叹为观止的风景啊。
     Jack:Yes. You are right.
     杰克:是啊。
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